Monday, September 09, 2019

Cobalt 2019

An awesome time was had in Cobalt Ontario (population 1500) on Saturday the 7th of September. A big thank you to Megan and Andy for enduring the 6 hour drive to fill this old farts bucket list.
Also a big thank you to my wife fror taking care of Connor and Jenia so we could make the trek.
And a big thank you to daughter Tina and sons Brad and Jason for encouraging me to donate the historic photo records my great grandfather had taken of Cobalt between 1905 and 1910 as well as other pertinent memorabilia.
All my life I had head the stories, looked at the photos and felt a kinship with the people of Cobalt and this weekend I got to live it albeit short it fulfilled a dream.
The people, in and around the area, take great pride in their mining history as well as the contribution to WWI and WWII. We took the time to visit the Military Museum which celebrates all nations and has an amazing display of uniforms and militaria. Unfortunately the mining museum was closed on Saturday as it is end of season but then maybe another visit is in order 
We also drove the Heritage Trail and saw several of the old mines that still stood more that 100 years later. Of particular interest was the book store that we dropped of the photos to Deborah Ranchuck, secretary for the Historic Society. The store is built over and around one of the headframe for the mine. The history of the store was fascinating in itself, prior to being a bookstore ith had been a grocery and because there was ice forming in the mine shaft the owner of the grocery store used it as a cooler to store meat and other items, in the 60's the government stepped and said "you can't do that" the store closed and became a flower shop and that owner did the same by store flowers in the shaft.

Thursday, August 29, 2019

More exciting news regarding the revival of Charles 1890's invention and its modernization

Green Mining Investment Coming to North Eastern Ontario

News release

August 28, 2019                    Ottawa, Ontario                      Natural Resources Canada        
The Canadian mines and minerals industry is important to our economy and to communities across the country. Developing Canada’s natural resources in cleaner, more sustainable ways will create good, middle-class jobs, increase competitiveness and reduce pollution as we move toward a clean energy future.
Paul Lefebvre, Parliamentary Secretary to the Honourable Amarjeet Sohi, Canada’s Minister of Natural Resources, today announced an investment of $2.1 million for a green mining project aimed at developing an alternative to the mechanical compressors currently used in underground mining, one that is expected to reduce energy consumption and costs for compressed air by almost 40 percent. The alternative compressors will be deployed at Kirkland Lake Gold Ltd.’s Holloway Mine.
Kirkland Lake Gold will use Sudbury-based Electrale Innovation Ltd’s hydraulic air compressor (HAC) technology, which relies on water and gravity to compress air. The cooler, drier, oil-free compressed air will also improve equipment maintenance and reliability at Kirkland Lake Gold’s Holloway Mine.
Funded through Natural Resources Canada’s Clean Growth Program, this project is harnessing the HAC technology to bring it to commercial scale in an operational underground mine and to build a new industry standard for compression in applications beyond underground mining.
The Clean Growth Program is a $155-million investment fund that helps emerging clean technologies further reduce their impacts on air, land and water while enhancing competitiveness and creating jobs.
Canada’s climate plan includes measures to protect the environment and leave a healthier planet for future generations, including actions to protect our oceans, phase out coal-fired electricity, invest in renewables and public transit and reduce plastic pollution. Green mining technologies are a key part of Canada’s plan to combat climate change while growing the economy.


“The Government of Canada continues to invest in projects that are positioning Canada’s mining industry to lead the clean energy future. Through strong government partnerships and a commitment to innovation, we are building the sustainable and competitive mining industry of tomorrow.”
- Paul LefebvreParliamentary Secretary to Canada’s Minister of Natural Resources 
“Kirkland Lake Gold is delighted to be working with NRCan and the project partners on this hydraulic air compressor deployment. By reducing energy consumption without negatively impacting costs and performance, Electrale’s hydraulic air compressor is a perfect fit with our sustainable mining objectives, and we are proud to take a leading role in the commercial deployment of this technology.”
- Alasdair Federico
Executive Vice President of Kirkland Lake Gold

Associated links


Thursday, June 08, 2017

Update July 8th 2017

I received the attached invitation to a demonstration of a modern day version of Charles H. Taylors 1910 compressor design which has been installed in Sudbury.

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

The war years - World War 1

When war was declared and Canada was called to arms Charles went into the manufacture of munitions in Montreal Quebec to assist the war effort, His son Arthur and wife Jeanne (my grandparents) worked in the plant.

The documents below are thank you cables sent to Canadian manufacturers and their workers once hostilities ceased in 1918.

Note that my grandmothers certificate has her home address as Verdun Quebec while her guarantor is Charles H. Taylor and it gives his shop office address in Toronto. By this time Charles was already married to Mable his second wife

Tuesday, April 26, 2016

Update - Approval for a test project

Hydraulic air compressor project has green light

Forgotten technology to produce compressed air at a fraction of the cost of conventional compressor plants

A $3.5 million demonstration project aimed at reintroducing a technology used to produce compressed air in Northern Ontario’s Cobalt mining camp more than 100 years ago is scheduled to commence operation by mid-June.
A closed circuit hydraulic air compressor will be constructed in an abandoned 17-metre ventilation shaft at the former Big Nickel Mine, a tourist attraction that is now part of Dynamic Earth, a geoscience centre in Sudbury operated by Science North.
The demonstration project will be modeled on the Ragged Chutes hydraulic air compressor plant designed by Canadian engineer Charles Havelock Taylor in 1910. The Ragged Chutes plant included a dam on the Montreal River and a 9.5-foot diameter shaft blasted to a depth of 107 metres. Intake pipes at the top of the shaft introduced air into the water as it plunged down the shaft. The force of the water compressed the air, which was then piped to a dozen mines to provide pneumatic power.
Ragged Chutes required no fuel, cost almost nothing to operate and ran continuously for 70 years with two brief interludes for maintenance.

Thursday, April 21, 2016

Update - Revitalizing an 1800s system

Can Frontier Technology From the 1800s Boost the Efficiency of Today’s Air Compressors?

A history lesson on practical isothermal compression via the Taylor compressor
by Eric Wesoff 
February 04, 2015

Carnot Compression, an early-stage startup, has resurrected a century-old technology to demonstrate that isothermal compression is achievable and can save energy wherever compressors are used -- which is pretty much everywhere.
The core technology of the eight-employee startup's invention is based on the Taylor compressor.  

The Taylor compressor

In the late 1800s and early 1900s, Charles Taylor (1859-1953), a self-taught engineer and geologist, designed and built a series of awesome power and hydraulic engineering projects in Canada and the U.S.
His hydraulic-air-compression-power systems used the same phenomenon exploited by the iron-age trompe; Taylor harnessed the power of gravity and the weight of falling water to create a compressed air resource that powered remote mining operations and factories. His power plant at the Ragged Chutes mine on the Montreal River near Cobalt, Ontario ran at 82 percent efficiency for decades with little maintenance. The Taylor compressor provided isothermal compression and delivered compressed air at 40,000 cubic-feet per minute (cfm) at 120 pounds per square inch (psi) -- equivalent to more than 5,500 horsepower. 
But the technology was largely forgotten until resurrected by Carnot Compression on a much smaller and less-geographically-constrained scale.

Taylor's projects and brilliant
 life are detailed here. A schematic of the compressor and photos of the invention can be found at the end of this article.)

Update - Ilustrated description of the Taylor Hydraulic Air Compressor

Booklet prepared by my great grandfather Charles H. Taylor in 1897 that explains the system in detail.

Monday, July 20, 2009

From Whence He Came

This site is devoted to the inventive genius of Mr. Charles Havelock Taylor. The information contained in this historic account is taken from engineering journals, family photo albums and the personal memoires of two families.

Born in Chatham New Brunswick January 20, 1859, Charles was the eighth child and first born son of Mary (Palmer) Taylor born 1820, died 1906 and Charles Taylor born 1817, died 19??. (left)

The Taylors were one of the pioneer families from England, who first settled in New York State in 1710. During the American Revolution the family joined many other United Empire Loyalists and moved north to New Brunswick.

His Father, pictured above with wife Mary, was a saw-mill contractor. Charles' stay in the Chatham area was short as when his father completed the building of a mill, the family moved on to the next location. The constant moving affected his schooling although it is known that during his boyhood he attended school in Matapedia, a small logging settlement, which is on the border of New Brunswick and Quebec, and at Kedgwick near by. (photo at right is a family gathering in New Brunswick).

At the age of 12 Charles' family moved to Levis Quebec a sleepy little village overlooking the picturesque "Old" City of Quebec. To attend school he had to cross the river. Winter was the only time when the river could be safely traversed. As a result the school year was short and his formal education terminated at spring break-up. He acheived the level of 6th grade before he was forced to quit for good.

In 1876 his family moved to Montreal. It is here that that he embarked upon a career that would lead to great feats of engineering. His father won a contract to construct a section of the Lachine Canal.

Being a self-educated man and possessing strong analitical skills Charles began his work career with his father. It was not long before Taylor's entrepreneurial skills and ingenuity came to the forefront. He contracted for the task of pumping water out of excavation sites while work on the canal proceeded. Up until this time only steam driven pumps were used for this type of work but for Taylor and his creative mind there had to be a better way. He struck upon the novel idea of siphoning off the water. He offered to do the work for a mere 20 dollars a day, much below cost of the steam pump used at the time. His method was absurdly simple and Charles was able to sit back and reap the benefits of his idea. Twenty dollars a day was a lot of money at a time when the economy of the country had fallen on hard times. He generously used his new found wealth to help his father and the family.

Acknowledgements: Richard Hillary (grandson of CH. Taylor) as well as Roy and Charles (Bud) Taylor (sons of CH Taylor) .

The First Family

In 1880 Charles, while living in Montreal, met and married Helen Maria Pye (born 1866; died 1929). Helen bore Charles (seated) three children Eva born 1883; died 1962 (wearing hat) Arthur Havelock born 1894; died 1964 and Helen born 189?; died 1921.
In 1905 the family took up residence in Haileybury Ontario while Charles built the Air Plant at Ragged Chutes.

Eva married Robert (Bob) Turner Andrea in 191? in Haileybury Ontario. Bob had come to Cobalt in 1909 after completing his post secondary education at the General Electric Technical School in Schenectady NY. He first came as inspector of air meters in the silver mines and later became chief engineer for the Northern Ontario Light and Power Company.

This was at a time when Charles H. Taylor was constructing the Ragged Chutes Air Plant to supply the burgeoning mining industry in Cobalt Ontario.

Eva and Bob moved to Montreal in 1928 when Bob was appointed statistian for the Power Corporation of Canada. Eva was a skilled concert pianist and played at the Cobalt Opera House in the early part of the century.

In 1911 Arthur was sent off to school at Feller Institute in Grande Ligne Quebec where he played hockey (back row, far right). After completing his education Arthur remained in Montreal where he met a young French Protestant girl, Jeanne Piche, whom he married in 1917. Jeanne and Arthur purchased a farm in Three Hills Alberta in 1919 and set out to try their hand at farming. Jeanne bore Arthur a son, Russell, who died within four months of his birth. Then in 1921 Francis Kathleen (my mother) was born. In 1924 Jeanne had another son whom they again named Russell. The boy was born with a birth defect and passed away in 1933.

Arthur and Jeanne were benevolent people and were known to take foster children. One of their children, Herbert Harrison Taylor, came to live with them as a young boy. Once Herbert became of age he was given the opportunity to chose his parents, just as they had chosen him. Herbert opted to be a Taylor and I was priviledged to have an uncle.

Helen, the youngest child of Charles and his first wife remained in Haileybury and in 1916 she married Grahame Hennesy. Helen's health was not good and by 1920 it had become quite serious, she passed away in 1921.
The Second Family

In 1910 while on a trip to England Charles met a young girl by the name of Gertude Mabel Morgan. Smitten by her beauty he brought Gertrude to Canada. First family rumor and inuendo has it that Gertude was brought to Canada as a housekeeper. Like all stories of this kind it is tempered by age and literary license. Neither family knows for sure what the circumstances were.

None the less Gertrude and Charles were married in Buffalo New York in 1911. They came to Toronto Ontario to live and, for the first year, they occupied a suite at the Prince George Hotel. The following year they moved to a house on Wolfrey Avenue.

Gertrude and Charles had 5 children together, Sylvia born 1915, Charles Havelock (Bud) born 19??, Phyllis born 19?? ; died 1941, Roy born 19?? and Ray born 19?? (deceased).

Note: I am awaiting photos and additional information with regard to the second family.

Lifes little ironies:

In the summer of 2001 I was in contact with the Cobalt Ontario Museum discussing a photo album I have depicting the town from 1905 to 1910. Cobalt has been awarded the distinction of being the "Most Historic Town" in Ontario. During the period from 1905 to 1910 Charles H. Taylor designed, engineered and built the Ragged Chutes Air Plant on the Montreal River.

During this conversation I was asked about Charles accompishments after he had left my great grandmother Helen. Jokingly I responded that he would have to contact the other side of the family. Ironically less than 3 weeks later I received a call from the museum and a voice says " I have good news" then he says "well I'm not sure if you will think it is good or bad", "I heard from the second family", "They would love to hear from you". Since that day we have exchanged stories, pictures and the occasional phone call.

At that time I spoke to Terry Mandzy the husband of Joan Taylor the daughter of (Bud) Taylor. We had great plans to get together but as life would have it we have yet to meet. However, my mother Francis Taylor Hawkins was visiting me here in Burlington Ontario and while returning to Quebec we were able to visit with (Bud). Interestingly Bud is nearly the same age as Francis but in the scheme of things Bud is her uncle.

And for the record, I recognized Bud as he stood in the picture window of his home, he is the spitting image of my grandfather Arthur, the first born son of Charles Havelock Taylor and his first wife Helen.
1878 to 1895 The Formative Years

Charles Havelock Taylor was not a man of idle mind nor body, he kept busy with work and with hobbies. His favorite hobby was photography an art that he was to become quite adept at. He carried the heavy bulky apparatus wherever he travelled recording his work, nature and the people he came in contact with. The photos contained in this blog are those taken by Charles between 1895 and the 1920's. This hobby remained a source of pleasure for him throughout his life.His business career during this period of his life reads like a best selling novel.

In the early stages of his career, mining was a prominent part of his life, and became the stepping stone to his success.

In the early 1880's he began a 10 year term as Mining Claim Investigator for his uncle, who owned the Howard Watch Company of New York. This position led to much travel throughout most of North America.At one point he was sent to North Carolina to investigate placer gold mines and was so taken by the heat and humidity that he nearly fainted while walking from the train station to the mine head. One has to realize that at this time in our history men wore shirt and tie, a botany serge suit and vest as well as a hat at all times when at work.

Then in 1891 he was sent to the Cripple Creek gold discovery in Colorado. Some 50,000 people swarmed into the area, near Pike's Peak, in search of fame and fortune. These were the days of opportunity and wealth however there were those who conspired to take advantage of the nieve money hungry newcomers. While investigating these mines, he saw many instances of salting, a practice whereby mine owners spread gold particles around mine shafts. This was done to entice unsuspecting buyers into purchasing an otherwise worthless mine.

During this period in his career he also acted as a consulting geologist for several mining concerns. Charles had an uncanny ability for tracing lost ore veins in mines. At this time he started building an extensive mineral collection and over the years he gathered some remarkable ore samples.

His interest in this field did not wane. Around 1890 he discovered a gold vein in Madoc, Ontario. He built a mine and operated it for several years before selling out. At one point in the 1880's he built and owned Montreal's first steam laundry. Later on he and two business associates built a skate factory. The machines and skates were designed and built by Taylor himself. With this practicle knowledge of mechanics and engineering he some became known as a qualified engineer.

With each adventure Taylor gained greater insite into the mining industry and it is here that his greatest acheivements would eventually be realized.

The 1890 Report of the Royal commission on the Mineral Resources of Ontario,

Page 550 (From INDEX OF WITNESSES which gives pages where witness testimony is found.)


Taylor, Charles, engineer (Bridgewater), Madoc, Oct. 2. ................................ .52, 86, 111, 133

(He is also in effect mentioned on pages 79 & 87)


page 52


Charles Taylor—We get actinolite within a distance of two and a half to four miles from Bridgewater; there is some in the 2nd concession of Hungerford, and Hungerford and there is some on lot 7 in the 2nd concession of Elzevir. I know where there is plenty of it, but the greatest deposits are in those places; it is in pockets in a magnesian rock associated with dolomite. It appears in forms like veins, which run crosswise of the country rock.    We find it at the surface, but have never been successful in following it to any depth; it appears to be in pockets and runs out.


Page 79


ROOFING MATERIALS. [Not C.H. Taylor’s words.]

Fibrous serpentine, called "actinolite," is found near Bridgewater, in the county of Hastings. No member of the Commission visited the places of production, but the process of manufacture at the mill in Bridgewater was witnessed. This consists simply in breaking the rock in a Blake crusher and then grinding the crushed material in Taylor's disintegrator, after which it is bagged and shipped. The rock is similar to what is called fibrous talc in New York state, where it is ground for a like purpose.[disintegrator = pulveriser mentioned on page 86]


Page 86


Charles Taylor—My business is that of engineer. At present I live at Bridge-water, Ontario. For the last twenty-five years I have been interested in mining in Nova Scotia and Ontario. In Nova Scotia I was employed by the London Gold Mining Co. as superintendent of their works, and I erected the first crusher in that part of the country. I came to this part of Ontario about six years ago from Montreal. Directly or indirectly I have been engaged in mining operations for about twenty-five years. I have been working the actinolite mills at Bridgewater. I put up the works there, and I have three patents on the process, one for breaking the stone, one for pulverising, and the other for a composition for roofing. The actinolite occurs diagonally in the vein, at an angle of about 40 degrees. We get it sometimes in veins, sometimes in pockets; some of the pockets are from 10 to 12 feet broad, and where found in pockets it is generally in prisms. It seems to be associated in an upheaval between the dolomite and the gneiss or trap. On the east side is a conglomerate of limestone and quartz pebbles, with a matrix of limestone; next the conglomerate is slate then magnesian rock, and then the gneiss again. There is no trap near the actinolite itself. I have seen actinolite occurrences in other parts of the country, but only on the same range of rocks; I have not seen them in any other range. This is the only place I have seen it in Ontario.  I have seen it in the province of Quebec; but there it does not occur in the same manner, being associated with asbestos. We get different kinds of actinolite; one kind is long, another comes up in prisms from one-half or five-eighths of an inch to six inches long. It is all the same when ground. We have not found any asbestos. I think the present source of supply may become exhausted without regular mining and a great deal of expense.  During the six years I have been in the business we have sent away from our place about $6,000 worth a year. The actinolite is first broken up, then it is pulverised, then it is ground into dust, except that the live fiber is drawn the same as paper pulp; that absorbs the tar and it consolidates. We mix it up with tar the same as mortar, and it can be put on the same as mortar. What we ship from the factory we do not mix with tar; we sell it in a pulverised state. It is put up in bags containing; 100 pounds; one bag contains enough for10 feet square of roofing and the price per bag is75cents. It takes about 30 horse-power to drive the machinery for grinding 25 to 30 tons a day. We use water power altogether.   Our mill runs about six or eight weeks in the year, and we find a market for our product in Canada and the States. We always have orders ahead, and this year we could not fill all the orders because we had not sufficient water. In addition to roofing our product is used for sidewalks and the foundations of houses. It does not crack or shrink, and it is fire proof. The tar will burn a little, but that forms as a crust; it is a non-conductor. At our mills we employ sometimes as many as 16 or 17 teams. Five men are employed in the mill, and at other times the same men work in the mine.    We pay $1.25 a day to men, and $2.50 for teams. The duty entering the States is 10 per cent, because it is not a finished article; that amounts to about $1.50 a ton.    The raw material costs us about $3 a ton.


Page 87


Joseph James—I am in partnership with Mr. Taylor in the actinolite business, which is now in liquidation.   The capital invested is about $17,000 or $18,000. Mr. Taylor's share is about $3,000. The cement we manufacture is made for roofing. It is altogether different from any other kind of cement; it is the only one using actinolite or fiber to make the bond; the others use mica for that purpose. We also grind cement in which mica is used as a further bond, and I think this is an improvement. As the trade get it, it is ground to about 60-mesh; it is mixed with coal tar and pitch, and sometimes asphalt, according to the quality of the roofing desired. It is spread on the roof while hot, the total thickness including the felt on which it is spread being half an inch. This, roofing never gets hard; it remains elastic, and will bend to a limited extent without cracking. Our patent covers the use of actinolite with coal tar or its chemical equivalent. The process of laying it is not a patent, only the materials. The cost is about the same as a good gravel roof, and it is more durable and better in every respect.    The coal tar or pitch is hermetically sealed in the material, and cannot possibly evaporate or dry up. The sun or the frost will not affect it. It is as fireproof as a roof can be; more so than any metal roof. Insurance companies take it as a first class roof. It has another advantage over metal roofs besides being much less expensive; it is not affected by coal gas in cities, as is the case with metal roofs, particularly in foggy weather. The proportion in mixing is 11 gallons of coal tar or its equivalent to 100 pounds of actinolite. It is infusible; it can be softened by heat, but cannot burn. I grind some mica for the Grand Trunk to use as a lubricator. The first cement was made here in June,1883, since that time there has been turned out about 50,000 bags of 100 Ib. each. Last year was our smallest year's business, owing to trouble among ourselves. It is now four years since any endeavor was made to extend the business, but I think it is capable of being extended largely. Our principal markets are Montreal, Chicago and Detroit. I am satisfied with Taylor's pulveriser; l don't know of anything to beat it. I can put through 25 tons a day of ordinary rock, 12 hours work and 2,300 revolutions to the minute. It will grind 20 tons of phosphate in ten hours. Working easily it will do about 11/2 tons of the actinolite an hour. I would recommend it as the best grinder l know. I have seen it grinding bones in the Montreal abattoir. It will do about the same amount of quartz as of phosphate. The vein on lot 7 in the 1st concession of Kaladar is 10 or 12 inches wide on the surface. We have gone down 23 feet, and it is about from 21/2 to 4 feet wide. I think it is a vein there, because I never found it in any place else to that depth. Our material costs us from $1 to $5 a ton.


page 111.


“Charles Taylor.— We are at present taking the gold out of the tailings of the Consolidated mine by amalgamation. Our process is a simple one and is not patented ; it simply consists in using a sodium amalgam. When our mercury flowers we use a copper amalgam. I do not think we get all the gold. In every ton we put through I think we leave $35 or $30; if assayed it will show that. By the first process the company adopted I do not think they got more than $7 or $8 a ton of concentrates, though it assayed from $60 to $70 to the ton. The first process was to pass it through Cornish rolls, then it went through a large screen, then Extracting ore condensed in a large chamber. The average gold in the ore was $15 to the ton, and in the concentrates $80 to $80, but it is seldom that more than one-half the amount of the assay is got. We take about $4.50 a ton out of the tailings; we put through about eight tons a day, and with two men we take out from $100 to $!50 a week. We began working about the latter part of June, but water was scarce; now water is plenty, but the weather is getting too cold. This ore was treated by the chlorination process, but the article treated was not half burned, and all the gold was got out of the small part that was calcined. The dust on the beams of the wall assays $20 to the ton. The oxide of iron, if outside the gold, prevents the mercury from touching it, but by using caustic soda the oxide of iron is cut from the surface. In a building 40 feet square I can do twice as much as they can do with all their works at Deloro, which cover half an acre. My pulveriser can be placed in position with out foundation or anything of that kind. After crushing the ore I would burn it and take out the arsenic, and then it would be in a state to take out the gold by my process. If you were to stamp as fine as my pulveriser does you would not be able to do more than a ton a day, while I can pulverise from 8 to 10 tons a day. This machine occupies but a small space, and I am prepared to enter into a contract to crush from 8 to 12 tons a day, and put it through 60 mesh. These refractory ores; should be calcined in all cases. I have not as yet treated any arsenical ore here that was not treated before, but we treated arsenical ore in Nova Scotia. Except my process, I do not know of any by which it can be successfully treated; no one has treated it with caustic soda but myself. The proportion of caustic soda used is about two pounds to the ton of water. We keep the water up to blood heat and oxidise the mercury with acids; we also use a little muriatic acid and a little sulphur sometimes. The caustic soda will clear grease from the mercury.”


Page 133


Charles Taylor—Sometimes we get very good shows of copper and iron pyrites in the actinolite district. There is a large bed of iron pyrites in Hungerford, south of Copper and the Sheffield station. It is from four to six feet wide, and I think it extends over a large area. A pit has been sunk down 30 or 40 feet, and it can be shovelled out. A gold crusher was built upon it once, but there is only a show of gold.


Page 478 [The Taylor kiln mentioned below likely has nothing to do with C.H. Taylor, but he mentions burning the ore on page 111. That burning likely involved a kiln.]


The Swedish Westman kiln and Dillner kiln divide with the American Taylor kiln the commendations of Mr. Lilienberg, an authority on the subject. The last named is the least expensive kiln, and its capacity for reducing the sulphur in the very sulphurous magnetic ores of New Jersey has been successfully demonstrated. Whether the like result is attainable with less sulphurous ores such as those of eastern Ontario is not to be inferred without trial. The facility with which any ore will part with sulphur depends upon its density, crystalline texture and the mineral character of the pyrites. Summing up the requirements of a roasting kiln, they seem to be as follows: (1) The sulphur shall be reduced by single roasting from 3 to 4 down to 0.10 per cent. (2) Fine ore and lumps have to be roasted together as they come from the mines, without any extra expense for separation. (3) The cost of a kiln roasting 50 tons of ore a day shall not exceed |2,000, which of course ought to stand in some proportion to the price of the ore. (4) The cost of roasting shall not exceed 25 cents a ton. (5) The height shall not be greater than the space below the track in the stock-house, or about 12 feet, in order that elevators may be avoided and hopper cars used for direct unloading."^ Such are the tests to be applied in estimating the qualities of a kiln, in the opinion of Mr. ….


* In the Taylor kiln with its short space above and the long space below the gas inlet* sulphur is generally reduced from 2 to 5 per cent, down to 0.25 per cent., sometimes to 0.10 per cent. The cost of erection is $l,800 to $2,000, or about one-fourth of that of the West man kiln. The height for lifting the ore is about the same.   The consumption of coal, which is an important item where the waste gases from the blast furnace cannot be used, is reported to me so low as l cwt. lump anthracite per ton of ore.—Journal of the Charcoal Iron Workers, vol. ni5p. 264.

f N. Lilienberg, in the Charcoal Iron Workers' Journal, vol. in, pp. 261-263. J Journal of the Charcoal Iron Workers, vol. in., p. 265,



6.5  After Canada Consolidated

The story of Canada Consolidated runs cold after 1883. It is assumed that the corporate entity continued to exist and own the land. From then until 1896, the property was worked intermittently by two operations which exploited the heavy capital investment made by Canada Consolidated.


6.5.1 Charles Taylor

In June 1888 Charles Taylor, a local mining engineer, started extracting gold from the mill tailings. He used a simple amalgamation process and obtained about $4.50 of gold per ton of tailings. Working with two men he extracted about $100.00 to $150.00 per week. Taylor boasted that he used a building 40 feet (12m) square and could process twice as much ore as the original company could do with a mill that covered half an acre. However, he did admit that he was treating arsenical ore that had already been concentrated by the previous company.133


APPENDIX D Maltby and Associates Inc Collections Report
Charles Taylor: In 1888 a Mining Engineer by the name of Charles Taylor was extracting gold from the tailings of the Consolidated Gold Mine. Taylor had been in the mining business for 25 years and worked in Nova Scotia and Ontario. He came to Ontario about 1882 and was living in Bridgewater. He was involved in a number of mining activities.

1895 to 1914 From the Smallest Observation Came a Great Invention

In 1895 while building a dam in Buckingham Quebec Taylor noticed that air bubbles that were trapped in the water as it flowed over the spillway were carried under the ice and formed ice domes. When he broke one of the domes with a pipe he realized that the air was pressurized. Insignificant as this may appear to some, Taylor's mind was quick to grasp the industrial possibilities of this phenomenon. He made a working model of a compressor in a warehouse in Montreal. Glass tubing was integrated int the model so that all could see the operation of the machine and as experiments progressed modifications could be made to enhance efficiency.

Charles courted prominent businessmen from the period and, after a demonstration of the models ability to generate compressed air, he was able to build the first of his Air Plants with monies obtained from the investors and the Taylor Air Compressor Company was started.

The first plant to be built was at Magog Quebec for the Dominion Cottom Mills (later to become dominion Textile). It was a 155 horsepower compressor delivering air at 52 lbs. per sq. inch. It was 60% efficient and was still in operation in 1953. It was not untill the mid 1970's that an engineer from the US advised Dominion Textile to upgrade their weaving equipment rendering the compressor obsolete.

Then in 1898, at Ainsworth B.C., he organized the Kootney Air Supply Company and built a 600 H.P. compressor supplying air at 100 p.s.i. this required the construction of a 1354 foot closed wooden flume to develope enough water pressure. It was intended to supply the Kaslo Mining Co., a new copper mine.

The Great Northern Railroad did not build its promised spur line to the mine and so the compressor closed down. Taylor paid the $60,000 dolar construction costs to the financial backers out of his own pocket. This was a severe setback to his plans.

An order from the Dominion Government for a 45 H.P. compressor for the Peterborough Lift lock on the Severn Trent waterway in 1899 helped the company out.